I had the issue where I loaded up the game, my linked Microsoft account prompted me the 2FA but I couldn't click on the "Send Notification" button. I tried a few of the workarounds in here and it didnt work for me. Eventually I found that pressing "F11" on the keyboard changed the resolution of the game. Pressing it twice changed it again.
One of the resolutions (The one where you could see the whole dialog box) did not allow me to interact with it. The resolution change to were half the dialog box was off screen allwed me to interact. However, since the "Send Notification" button was off screen, I could not press it.
What I did instead was select "Use password" which changed the input method. Under that, a link for "Use authenticater" came back so I pressed that again. It finally prompted me with a sign-in code that sent to my phone. However, I could not see all the options available for my authenticater, so I pressed "F11" again to change the resolution back to the previous one so I could see the options and select the appropriate code for my authenticater.
After further troubleshooting, I found it was related to my settings in-game. The "Window Mode" was set to "Fullscreen" with a resolution of 3840 X 1210 (Something I had never seen before) SO I changed it back to Boarder-less and resolution of 1920x1080 and it seemed to fix everything.
NOTE** TO get to the resolution fix I came to, I had to play around with the "F11" button to keep switching between the screen where I could "see everything and not press on anything" and "press on anything and not see the whole screen".
It sounds like a lot and it was weird as hell to play with but I got it resolved this way. Hopefully this helps some of you guys out too.