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How fast do unsc ballistics travel? Considering they're advanced and very powerful, I'm curious if they can travel speeds near hypersonic. 343 never seem to state the velocity of the ballistics. UNSC ballistics in the halo universe can pull off very impressive feats compared to modern firearms as seen in expanded material. The BR for example has similar penetration to the covenant carbine which is stated to have projectiles firing at hypersonic speeds in Hunters of the Dark novel. Also bungie.net isn't considered a reliable source so please don't bring it up.
Well, to put things into perspective, the base Covenant Carbine model fires its projectiles at around Mach 4. And the current M16A4 assault rifle fires 5.56x45mm AP rounds at around Mach 2.

So even today we have weapons firing at supersonic speeds. Now it's the question of how far can the projectile travel before slowing down below supersonic speeds.

If you want a greater understanding on how UNSC ballistics and weaponry could work within canon, based on given information, along with their history, check out these two theories I wrote up a couple of years ago explaining the possible ways UNSC weapons actually function.

Link 1
Link 2
Well, to put things into perspective, the base Covenant Carbine model fires its projectiles at around Mach 4. And the current M16A4 assault rifle fires 5.56x45mm AP rounds at around Mach 2.

So even today we have weapons firing at supersonic speeds. Now it's the question of how far can the projectile travel before slowing down below supersonic speeds.

If you want a greater understanding on how UNSC ballistics and weaponry could work within canon, based on given information, along with their history, check out these two theories I wrote up a couple of years ago explaining the possible ways UNSC weapons actually function.

Link 1Link 2
You have some very interesting theories regarding the advancement of UNSC weapons. It's a shame 343 stubbornly refuses to actually explore the issue in depth. That's what Canon Fodder should be for. I mean, they've never even really explored what the hell the massive electronic cowling on an MA5 is actually for, or how the hell the Marine in my profile picture is actually able to aim his rifle.
Well, to put things into perspective, the base Covenant Carbine model fires its projectiles at around Mach 4. And the current M16A4 assault rifle fires 5.56x45mm AP rounds at around Mach 2.

So even today we have weapons firing at supersonic speeds. Now it's the question of how far can the projectile travel before slowing down below supersonic speeds.

If you want a greater understanding on how UNSC ballistics and weaponry could work within canon, based on given information, along with their history, check out these two theories I wrote up a couple of years ago explaining the possible ways UNSC weapons actually function.

Link 1Link 2
You have some very interesting theories regarding the advancement of UNSC weapons. It's a shame 343 stubbornly refuses to actually explore the issue in depth. That's what Canon Fodder should be for. I mean, they've never even really explored what the hell the massive electronic cowling on an MA5 is actually for, or how the hell the Marine in my profile picture is actually able to aim his rifle.
The covenant carbine actually fires at hypersonic rounds according to hunters in the Shadow of Intent novel. Here's a quote from the book:
Quote:
Uncannily quick, the Prelate raised his hardlight shield and deflected three shots from a Covenant carbine rifle. The bright green hypersonic slugs ricocheted with glassy pings, sparking radioactive fuel.
What's interesting is that according to the halo 2 game manual it states the BR has similar penetration to the weapon. It wouldn't be far off to assume to BR fires it's rounds in ballpark of the Covenant carbine.
Quote:
Covenant Carbine
Rare Covenant projectile-firing rifle, a powerful, stocky weapon, and fitted with magnifying scope. Fires single rounds with high degree of accuracy and power. In some ways its technology mimics Covenant Fuel Rod Gun, although obviously on a smaller scale, but offers similar penetration to UNSC Battle Rifle.
Well, to put things into perspective, the base Covenant Carbine model fires its projectiles at around Mach 4. And the current M16A4 assault rifle fires 5.56x45mm AP rounds at around Mach 2.

So even today we have weapons firing at supersonic speeds. Now it's the question of how far can the projectile travel before slowing down below supersonic speeds.

If you want a greater understanding on how UNSC ballistics and weaponry could work within canon, based on given information, along with their history, check out these two theories I wrote up a couple of years ago explaining the possible ways UNSC weapons actually function.

Link 1Link 2
You have some very interesting theories regarding the advancement of UNSC weapons. It's a shame 343 stubbornly refuses to actually explore the issue in depth. That's what Canon Fodder should be for. I mean, they've never even really explored what the hell the massive electronic cowling on an MA5 is actually for, or how the hell the Marine in my profile picture is actually able to aim his rifle.
Either he has a sight in his helmet (as Marines in Halo CE often did on their helmets), the rifle has a holosight like in Halo 5, or there are retractable iron sights in the cowling.
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To know the Lore is to know Halo
"Dont be spoiled, dont start a fight. Always be careful, here at night. Because the Spartans might come, in suits that weigh half a ton. And they'll steal from you all you gots, just like they did from Colonel Watts."
Well, to put things into perspective, the base Covenant Carbine model fires its projectiles at around Mach 4. And the current M16A4 assault rifle fires 5.56x45mm AP rounds at around Mach 2.

So even today we have weapons firing at supersonic speeds. Now it's the question of how far can the projectile travel before slowing down below supersonic speeds.

If you want a greater understanding on how UNSC ballistics and weaponry could work within canon, based on given information, along with their history, check out these two theories I wrote up a couple of years ago explaining the possible ways UNSC weapons actually function.

Link 1Link 2
You have some very interesting theories regarding the advancement of UNSC weapons. It's a shame 343 stubbornly refuses to actually explore the issue in depth. That's what Canon Fodder should be for. I mean, they've never even really explored what the hell the massive electronic cowling on an MA5 is actually for, or how the hell the Marine in my profile picture is actually able to aim his rifle.
The covenant carbine actually fires at hypersonic rounds according to hunters in the Shadow of Intent novel. Here's a quote from the book:
Quote:
Uncannily quick, the Prelate raised his hardlight shield and deflected three shots from a Covenant carbine rifle. The bright green hypersonic slugs ricocheted with glassy pings, sparking radioactive fuel.
What's interesting is that according to the halo 2 game manual it states the BR has similar penetration to the weapon. It wouldn't be far off to assume to BR fires it's rounds in ballpark of the Covenant carbine.
Quote:
Covenant Carbine
Rare Covenant projectile-firing rifle, a powerful, stocky weapon, and fitted with magnifying scope. Fires single rounds with high degree of accuracy and power. In some ways its technology mimics Covenant Fuel Rod Gun, although obviously on a smaller scale, but offers similar penetration to UNSC Battle Rifle.
A decentralized manufacturing process and a lack of standards tells us that not all Covenant Carbines are of the same quality or power. Firing hypervelocity projectiles may be unique to that specific variant of the Type-51 Carbine or the weapons designed by its manufacturer, and while the wording of the text implies otherwise, the possibility remains that the very same weapon may be one of a kind.

A burst of BR fire is quoted from Contact Harvest as being "slightly more powerful" then the MA5B's 7.62x51mm NATO - a farcry from the obviously greater armor-piercing capabilities of the SoS Covenant Carbine.

"UNSC Ballistics" (excluding man-portable Directed Energy Weaponry or Railguns) is comparatively similar to our own - KE or otherwise.
Well, to put things into perspective, the base Covenant Carbine model fires its projectiles at around Mach 4. And the current M16A4 assault rifle fires 5.56x45mm AP rounds at around Mach 2.

So even today we have weapons firing at supersonic speeds. Now it's the question of how far can the projectile travel before slowing down below supersonic speeds.

If you want a greater understanding on how UNSC ballistics and weaponry could work within canon, based on given information, along with their history, check out these two theories I wrote up a couple of years ago explaining the possible ways UNSC weapons actually function.

Link 1Link 2
You have some very interesting theories regarding the advancement of UNSC weapons. It's a shame 343 stubbornly refuses to actually explore the issue in depth. That's what Canon Fodder should be for. I mean, they've never even really explored what the hell the massive electronic cowling on an MA5 is actually for, or how the hell the Marine in my profile picture is actually able to aim his rifle.
The covenant carbine actually fires at hypersonic rounds according to hunters in the Shadow of Intent novel. Here's a quote from the book:
Quote:
Uncannily quick, the Prelate raised his hardlight shield and deflected three shots from a Covenant carbine rifle. The bright green hypersonic slugs ricocheted with glassy pings, sparking radioactive fuel.
What's interesting is that according to the halo 2 game manual it states the BR has similar penetration to the weapon. It wouldn't be far off to assume to BR fires it's rounds in ballpark of the Covenant carbine.
Quote:
Covenant Carbine
Rare Covenant projectile-firing rifle, a powerful, stocky weapon, and fitted with magnifying scope. Fires single rounds with high degree of accuracy and power. In some ways its technology mimics Covenant Fuel Rod Gun, although obviously on a smaller scale, but offers similar penetration to UNSC Battle Rifle.
A decentralized manufacturing process and a lack of standards tells us that not all Covenant Carbines are of the same quality or power. Firing hypervelocity projectiles may be unique to that specific variant of the Type-51 Carbine or the weapons designed by its manufacturer, and while the wording of the text implies otherwise, the possibility remains that the very same weapon may be one of a kind.

A burst of BR fire is quoted from Contact Harvest as being "slightly more powerful" then the MA5B's 7.62x51mm NATO - a farcry from the obviously greater armor-piercing capabilities of the SoS Covenant Carbine.

"UNSC Ballistics" (excluding man-portable Directed Energy Weaponry or Railguns) is comparatively similar to our own - KE or otherwise.
The halo the essential visual guide also states the covenant carbine can fire up to mach 5. The BR I was referring to was the BR55 which has similar penetration to the covenant carbine. The model used in Contact Harvest was the XBR55 battle rifle. I don't find UNSC ballistics that comparable too modern day arms. Excluding the weapon attachments such as the kinetic bolts. Some of the UNSC ballistics have fictional rounds such as the BR. They also have superior AP rounds and much advanced at the point where they displayed superior feats to out modern arms. The only similarity I see is that the UNSC uses ballistics and some rounds exist to day but it doesn't necessarily mean their KE is the same. Velocity, AP rounds and such are a factor here. We don't much about unsc ballistic velocity though, unless you go to the outdated and unreliable bungie.net. The only fastest know ballistic weapon the UNSC has is the M99 Special Application Scoped Rifle which has a velocity of 15,000 meters/second (9.3 miles/second).
I don't want to be a nebulous naysayer, but don't ever expect to get much out of this type of question.

Although videogames are responsible for a lot of people getting into guns, they tend to get a lot of things wrong. For example, Suppressors, as any gamer knows, decreases velocity, range, and damage. But in reality, they increase all three! The point is, gameplay balance rules king, and cartridge/gun lore take a back seat.

Most video games use some form of the Taylor Knockout Factor to determine how damage is counted. The equation goes:

TKOF = (Mass_bullet*velocity*diameter)/7000

Where the mass is in lbs, the velocity is in feet per second, and the diameter is in caliber, or inches.

So basically game developers get a rough idea of real life weapons and their particular cartridges, then assign a TKOF that optimizes gameplay and weapon balance. If the developers care to provide lore on the matter, they will usually pick a familiar cartridge and "tweak" the velocities.

Take the MA5D, the Halo 5 Assault Rifle. It's a fully automatic rifle, that shoots a 7.62×51, also known as a .308 Winchester! That's a high powered, mid to long range hunting round! A single, well placed shot with that cartridge will down a moose. And average marines in the Halo EU use it as a standard issue rifle? In real life, the only military application for that round is as a stationary heavy machine gun, never shoulder mounted.

The Halo 5 sniper rifle is a .57 caliber. That round would be absolutely ATROCIOUS as a long range, accurate bullet. While bullets that fat are unparalleled in close range destruction, they tend to have a brutally low sectional density, resulting in extreme velocity loss and horrific accuracy. Nothing that fat and heavy can achieve and maintain the flight stability and speed necessitated in a sniper round. 30 caliber is even considered "pushing it" for consideration as a long range munition.

I love looking at real life crossovers with the Halo universe. But if you are looking for any semblance of realism regarding weapons, you will only find disappointment.
The .308 is the cartridge used in the FN-FAL and M14 series rifles, but you are correct that they are more frequently used in machine guns. They are difficult to control on full auto, but the heavier MG helps absorb this better. It is certainly not an assault rifle cartridge, but rather, a battle rifle cartridge. Battle rifles are meant to be effective out to 800 meters, while Assault rifles are generally effective within 500 meters.

.50 BMG sniper rifles are fantastic rifles, in both range and damage. They can be used to snipe at ranges of over a mile, shoot through lightly armored vehicles, and destroy land mines/IEDs from a safe distance.

The great flaws of Halo's weaponry is that they resemble police weapons, rather than military weapons. This makes sense, as the UNSC acted as a colonial police force prior to the war. But when a .50-cal handgun or shotguns do more damage than an AR, then we are clearly dealing with low-velocity weaponry. For example, 9 mm Luger pistols shoot at around 1300 fps, while Desert Eagles are usually 1500 fps. A 12-guage shotgun is usually similar in velocity. A .556, on the other hand, shoots around 3000 fps, and a 7.62 is around 2600 fps. The sniper rifle is big and bulky, like most SWAT sniper rifles,and has only a 10x scope. For a SWAT officer, this is a perfect setup, as it allows laser-precision when rescuing hostages. For a military sniper, a 25x scope would be better, and a lighter rifle would be more portable.

A .308 would be able to kill practically all Covenant soldiers with a single shot, or wound them so severely that they are out of the fight. Follow-up shots would be more than enough to finish the job. A .556 would have greater difficulty in penetrating armor, but not after 2-4 hits on a target. A .50 BMG would cut the smaller species in half, and blow out the larger species' chest cavities. Heads would shatter like pumpkins.

What makes bullets more effective than plasma weapons is that they inflict mechanical and kinetic damage, whereas plasma deals both kinetic and thermal. Kinetic and thermal damage can be absorbed or dissipated by energy shields, but the energy is not a solid barrier. It would not be able to prevent mechanical damage by a solid projectile. It could slow the projectile, but a bullet that is slowed to 20 fps (from 2580 fps in a 175 grain 7.62 round) isn't going to bounce off. The Covenant armor is the only thing left to stop the bullet, but it does not protect every part of the body. Hits to the face would be instantly fatal, limbs would be incapacitated, and the risk of bleeding to death would be significant.
The .308 is the cartridge used in the FN-FAL and M14 series rifles, but you are correct that they are more frequently used in machine guns. They are difficult to control on full auto, but the heavier MG helps absorb this better. It is certainly not an assault rifle cartridge, but rather, a battle rifle cartridge. Battle rifles are meant to be effective out to 800 meters, while Assault rifles are generally effective within 500 meters.

.50 BMG sniper rifles are fantastic rifles, in both range and damage. They can be used to snipe at ranges of over a mile, shoot through lightly armored vehicles, and destroy land mines/IEDs from a safe distance.

The great flaws of Halo's weaponry is that they resemble police weapons, rather than military weapons. This makes sense, as the UNSC acted as a colonial police force prior to the war. But when a .50-cal handgun or shotguns do more damage than an AR, then we are clearly dealing with low-velocity weaponry. For example, 9 mm Luger pistols shoot at around 1300 fps, while Desert Eagles are usually 1500 fps. A 12-guage shotgun is usually similar in velocity. A .556, on the other hand, shoots around 3000 fps, and a 7.62 is around 2600 fps. The sniper rifle is big and bulky, like most SWAT sniper rifles,and has only a 10x scope. For a SWAT officer, this is a perfect setup, as it allows laser-precision when rescuing hostages. For a military sniper, a 25x scope would be better, and a lighter rifle would be more portable.

A .308 would be able to kill practically all Covenant soldiers with a single shot, or wound them so severely that they are out of the fight. Follow-up shots would be more than enough to finish the job. A .556 would have greater difficulty in penetrating armor, but not after 2-4 hits on a target. A .50 BMG would cut the smaller species in half, and blow out the larger species' chest cavities. Heads would shatter like pumpkins.

What makes bullets more effective than plasma weapons is that they inflict mechanical and kinetic damage, whereas plasma deals both kinetic and thermal. Kinetic and thermal damage can be absorbed or dissipated by energy shields, but the energy is not a solid barrier. It would not be able to prevent mechanical damage by a solid projectile. It could slow the projectile, but a bullet that is slowed to 20 fps (from 2580 fps in a 175 grain 7.62 round) isn't going to bounce off. The Covenant armor is the only thing left to stop the bullet, but it does not protect every part of the body. Hits to the face would be instantly fatal, limbs would be incapacitated, and the risk of bleeding to death would be significant.
How is this relevant to UNSC ballistic velocity? Most UNSC ballistics(post halo 3) uses fictional rounds. There are a few that use similar rounds to today weapons but despite that UNSC variants obviously has superior AP rounds and modifications such as kinetic bolts. They have superior feats and accomplish things our modern day counterpart can't. One of the most important aspects is the velocity which I'm pretty such is superior to today's counterparts. A lot of UNSC guns such as sniper, machine guns, railguns and etc. are gauss powered and fire easily hypersonic. The M99 Special Application Scoped Rifle for example has a velocity of 15,000 meters/second (9.3 miles/second). .308 wouldn't be effective against brutes and elites based of what I've read in the halo novels. In hunters of the dark an elite was capable of tanking 4 or 5 sniper rounds if I remembered correct and brutes being nearly impervious to most UNSC ballistics.
Well, to put things into perspective, the base Covenant Carbine model fires its projectiles at around Mach 4. And the current M16A4 assault rifle fires 5.56x45mm AP rounds at around Mach 2.

So even today we have weapons firing at supersonic speeds. Now it's the question of how far can the projectile travel before slowing down below supersonic speeds.

If you want a greater understanding on how UNSC ballistics and weaponry could work within canon, based on given information, along with their history, check out these two theories I wrote up a couple of years ago explaining the possible ways UNSC weapons actually function.

Link 1Link 2
You have some very interesting theories regarding the advancement of UNSC weapons. It's a shame 343 stubbornly refuses to actually explore the issue in depth. That's what Canon Fodder should be for. I mean, they've never even really explored what the hell the massive electronic cowling on an MA5 is actually for, or how the hell the Marine in my profile picture is actually able to aim his rifle.
-snip-
Quote:
Covenant Carbine
Rare Covenant projectile-firing rifle, a powerful, stocky weapon, and fitted with magnifying scope. Fires single rounds with high degree of accuracy and power. In some ways its technology mimics Covenant Fuel Rod Gun, although obviously on a smaller scale, but offers similar penetration to UNSC Battle Rifle.
-snip-
The halo the essential visual guide also states the covenant carbine can fire up to mach 5.
That's awful. Thanks to air friction, that projectile is gonna ablate, lose a lot of mass and energy over distance. And the recoil... holy smokes... the numbers don't add up.
The BR I was referring to was the BR55 which has similar penetration to the covenant carbine. The model used in Contact Harvest was the XBR55 battle rifle.
The weapon doesn't determine the projectile velocity, the ammunition propellant does. M634 HP-SAP is the same then, as it is now.
I don't find UNSC ballistics that comparable too modern day arms.
Then you may want to reevaluate your information.
Some of the UNSC ballistics have fictional rounds such as the BR.
Sure. But the differences are minor- more caseless or polymer cased ammunition - but relatively similar shapes, sizes, and purpose as modern day counterparts.
They also have superior AP rounds and much advanced at the point where they displayed superior feats to out modern arms.
Such as...?
The only similarity I see is that the UNSC uses ballistics and some rounds exist to day but it doesn't necessarily mean their KE is the same. Velocity, AP rounds and such are a factor here. We don't much about unsc ballistic velocity though, unless you go to the outdated and unreliable bungie.net.
Sounds more like you'd like it to be unreliable then it is. The calculations there for muzzle velocity are pretty reasonable.
The only fastest know ballistic weapon the UNSC has is the M99 Special Application Scoped Rifle which has a velocity of 15,000 meters/second (9.3 miles/second).
But unlike the rest of the chemical-propelled armament of the UNSC/UEG, the M99 is an coilgun, an exception to an otherwise common rule. And even then it has a whole list of drawbacks that come with its usage.
Well, to put things into perspective, the base Covenant Carbine model fires its projectiles at around Mach 4. And the current M16A4 assault rifle fires 5.56x45mm AP rounds at around Mach 2.

So even today we have weapons firing at supersonic speeds. Now it's the question of how far can the projectile travel before slowing down below supersonic speeds.

If you want a greater understanding on how UNSC ballistics and weaponry could work within canon, based on given information, along with their history, check out these two theories I wrote up a couple of years ago explaining the possible ways UNSC weapons actually function.

Link 1Link 2
You have some very interesting theories regarding the advancement of UNSC weapons. It's a shame 343 stubbornly refuses to actually explore the issue in depth. That's what Canon Fodder should be for. I mean, they've never even really explored what the hell the massive electronic cowling on an MA5 is actually for, or how the hell the Marine in my profile picture is actually able to aim his rifle.
-snip-
Quote:
Covenant Carbine
Rare Covenant projectile-firing rifle, a powerful, stocky weapon, and fitted with magnifying scope. Fires single rounds with high degree of accuracy and power. In some ways its technology mimics Covenant Fuel Rod Gun, although obviously on a smaller scale, but offers similar penetration to UNSC Battle Rifle.
Quote:
-snip-
Quote:
That's awful. Thanks to air friction, that projectile is gonna ablate, lose a lot of mass and energy over distance. And the recoil... holy smokes... the numbers don't add up.
It's a fictional guns that uses fictional rounds. The carbine fires radioactive rounds which mimics the fuel rods.
Quote:
The weapon doesn't determine the projectile velocity, the ammunition propellant does. M634 HP-SAP is the same then, as it is now.
I'm sure the weapons is still a factor not just the bullet itself. What about Muzzle boosters?
Quote:
Sure. But the differences are minor- more caseless or polymer cased ammunition - but relatively similar shapes, sizes, and purpose as modern day counterparts.
Still different do. Packs more punch too. When travelling high velocity with the optional addition of kinetic bolts.
Quote:
Such as...?
You need to be specific on ballistics here. Depends on ballistic weapons they're mostly capable of killing knights, elites, brutes and do staggering as well as harming warden of external who capable of tanking tank shells in gameplay. In halo The Flood chief manage to use an AR as a anti-aircraft weapons and destroy a banshee, not many modern day weapons which utilizes ‎7.62x51mm FMJ-AP could pull it off. If you looks at the rounds in clip in gameplay you'll see the ‎rounds from the AR are near as big as a Spartan's hand. Some of the unsc weapons have very powerful explosive ballistic rounds such as the multiplayer norfang, upgraded variants of the Saw and ONI machine gun turrets. Strong enough to cause proximity damage to the other players with indirect shots. There's plenty of feats I could pull up but these area few on top of my head. Also Spartan uses upgraded variants UNSC ballistics weapons.
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Sounds more like you'd like it to be unreliable then it is. The calculations there for muzzle velocity are pretty reasonable.
Because it's outdated, lowballs weapons and has plenty contradiction from other media. Bungie doesn't own halo anymore anyways and not for a long time so any 343 halo material should trump bungie's. The carbine is one good example, bungie net states is travels at 700m/s while books states it travels at hypersonic speeds. Also the weapons on bungie net are outdated UNSC tech.
Quote:
But unlike the rest of the chemical-propelled armament of the UNSC/UEG, the M99 is an coilgun, an exception to an otherwise common rule. And even then it has a whole list of drawbacks that come with its usage.
I was aware of this
Well, to put things into perspective, the base Covenant Carbine model fires its projectiles at around Mach 4. And the current M16A4 assault rifle fires 5.56x45mm AP rounds at around Mach 2.

So even today we have weapons firing at supersonic speeds. Now it's the question of how far can the projectile travel before slowing down below supersonic speeds.

If you want a greater understanding on how UNSC ballistics and weaponry could work within canon, based on given information, along with their history, check out these two theories I wrote up a couple of years ago explaining the possible ways UNSC weapons actually function.

Link 1Link 2
You have some very interesting theories regarding the advancement of UNSC weapons. It's a shame 343 stubbornly refuses to actually explore the issue in depth. That's what Canon Fodder should be for. I mean, they've never even really explored what the hell the massive electronic cowling on an MA5 is actually for, or how the hell the Marine in my profile picture is actually able to aim his rifle.
-snip-
Quote:
Covenant Carbine
Rare Covenant projectile-firing rifle, a powerful, stocky weapon, and fitted with magnifying scope. Fires single rounds with high degree of accuracy and power. In some ways its technology mimics Covenant Fuel Rod Gun, although obviously on a smaller scale, but offers similar penetration to UNSC Battle Rifle.
Quote:
-snip-
It is true that these are fictional guns, but they violate several laws of physics and physiology. For example, p = mv. P is momentum, m is mass, and v is velocity.

A gun that fires at a velocity of 15,000 m/s is about 5x as fast as a .556 and 10x as fast as a 7.62 round. Therefore, the recoil would be 10 times greater. No normal person could shoot a gun like this.

The only three things that affect velocity are: the weight of the bullet, the gunpowder's chemical energy, and the length/rifling of the barrel, which affects bullet stability. Muzzle boosters do not exist, and the prongs at the tip are flash suppressors.

A .308 would be able to kill anything with a headshot, and the Covenant armor does not offer any facial protection. The brutes/elites may have armor capable of stopping one or two bullets, but 3 or more would crack the armor and penetrate. Plus, a hit in the arms, where the armor does not cover, would incapacitate the creature and cause it to bleed to death. Anything bigger than a .308 would be very heavy to carry (120 rounds was standard loadout in Vietnam) in any large quantity, but would still do the job. The only improvement I can see is better AP bullets, but these would be better, not worse, than our current ammunition today. Our ammunition today would be more than sufficient to kill Covenant species. Only their armor would pose a problem.

The AR has less power than a low-velocity pistol,so it cannot be a high-velocity cartridge. A 7.62 would be able to kill any Covenant species (except Hunters) with a headshot, due to the weight of the bullet and it's mechanical damage. Energy shields are not a solid barrier, so the bullet would still strike the head and penetrate the skull.
Good topic
UNSC's ballistics have the best travel times. Nobody makes better firearms than they do. It's true! Yeah it's true. You've seen what they can do. Their penetration is tremendous believe me.
Well, to put things into perspective, the base Covenant Carbine model fires its projectiles at around Mach 4. And the current M16A4 assault rifle fires 5.56x45mm AP rounds at around Mach 2.

So even today we have weapons firing at supersonic speeds. Now it's the question of how far can the projectile travel before slowing down below supersonic speeds.

If you want a greater understanding on how UNSC ballistics and weaponry could work within canon, based on given information, along with their history, check out these two theories I wrote up a couple of years ago explaining the possible ways UNSC weapons actually function.

Link 1Link 2
You have some very interesting theories regarding the advancement of UNSC weapons. It's a shame 343 stubbornly refuses to actually explore the issue in depth. That's what Canon Fodder should be for. I mean, they've never even really explored what the hell the massive electronic cowling on an MA5 is actually for, or how the hell the Marine in my profile picture is actually able to aim his rifle.
-snip-
Quote:
Covenant Carbine
Rare Covenant projectile-firing rifle, a powerful, stocky weapon, and fitted with magnifying scope. Fires single rounds with high degree of accuracy and power. In some ways its technology mimics Covenant Fuel Rod Gun, although obviously on a smaller scale, but offers similar penetration to UNSC Battle Rifle.
Quote:
-snip-
It is true that these are fictional guns, but they violate several laws of physics and physiology. For example, p = mv. P is momentum, m is mass, and v is velocity.

A gun that fires at a velocity of 15,000 m/s is about 5x as fast as a .556 and 10x as fast as a 7.62 round. Therefore, the recoil would be 10 times greater. No normal person could shoot a gun like this.

The only three things that affect velocity are: the weight of the bullet, the gunpowder's chemical energy, and the length/rifling of the barrel, which affects bullet stability. Muzzle boosters do not exist, and the prongs at the tip are flash suppressors.

A .308 would be able to kill anything with a headshot, and the Covenant armor does not offer any facial protection. The brutes/elites may have armor capable of stopping one or two bullets, but 3 or more would crack the armor and penetrate. Plus, a hit in the arms, where the armor does not cover, would incapacitate the creature and cause it to bleed to death. Anything bigger than a .308 would be very heavy to carry (120 rounds was standard loadout in Vietnam) in any large quantity, but would still do the job. The only improvement I can see is better AP bullets, but these would be better, not worse, than our current ammunition today. Our ammunition today would be more than sufficient to kill Covenant species. Only their armor would pose a problem.

The AR has less power than a low-velocity pistol,so it cannot be a high-velocity cartridge. A 7.62 would be able to kill any Covenant species (except Hunters) with a headshot, due to the weight of the bullet and it's mechanical damage. Energy shields are not a solid barrier, so the bullet would still strike the head and penetrate the skull.
Are we talking .308 slugs or AP rounds? What's the velocity and mods to the bullet. Covenant armor do provide facial protection, majority too just depend on species and rank usual. I have a feeling your basing your opinion off the inferior storm faction covenant, if so the original covenant had superior armor protection. You're underatting how durable elites and brutes are. I hope you aren't using gameplay as evidence. In the books I remembered elites taking sniper shots at the neck. It took fred a AR clip to kill a brute(without a helmet) when shot to the face. Elites have been seen shrugging off 50 cal rounds which magnums use to the face. There's a lot of scenarios of elites and brutes taking higher caliber rounds to the face. Elites and higher ranking brutes have armor protection. Again I think you're talking about the lower ranking storm faction elites. When you mean our weapons sufficient enough to kill covenant solider, you mean unarmored right. Even UNSC ballistics have trouble penetrating covenant armor(mostly elites,hunters and burtes) inthe books. If you read the books, brutes are impervious to regular bullets and resisting LAAG fire without too much problem. Elites aren't impervious to bullets like brutes but they're high resistant to them. In hunter of the dark if I'm correct an elite took 4-5 sniper rounds.

It depends on pistol and you need to be specific on the pistol though. AR shouldn't be underrated though. The magnum pistol velocity is unknown but it has to be faster than our standards of coarse. It's usually equipped with semi-armor piercing and high explosive rounds. Again brutes have been shown to be impervious to 7.62 rounds from the assault rifle and more powerful rounds in the books. Elite zealots in halo reach cutscenes have been since resistant headshot from the 7.62 and in the fall of reach animated series, even a blue low ranking elite was tanking shots near the head area, though I take the animated version with a grain of salt. Again these were on top of my head, I could do some digging for more feats and bring actually quotes from books. Energy shield absorb kinetic energy leaving the armor plating safe until it drains.
The way I see it, it should be taken for granted that UNSC ammunition uses materials and compounds that are more advanced than what we have today, but they're clearly not uber-technical. I envision Titanium-A jacketing and Energetic Propellants, not micro-thrusters and hidden lasers or whatever.
The way I see it, it should be taken for granted that UNSC ammunition uses materials and compounds that are more advanced than what we have today, but they're clearly not uber-technical. I envision Titanium-A jacketing and Energetic Propellants, not micro-thrusters and hidden lasers or whatever.
the thing is that if they do, we are not getting told, so we are left scratching our heads as to what is happening.
The way I see it, it should be taken for granted that UNSC ammunition uses materials and compounds that are more advanced than what we have today, but they're clearly not uber-technical. I envision Titanium-A jacketing and Energetic Propellants, not micro-thrusters and hidden lasers or whatever.
the thing is that if they do, we are not getting told, so we are left scratching our heads as to what is happening.
Precisely!My conclusions are based off two observations regarding the assault rifle - one, that the in-game tip of an assault rifle round is a similar titanium-silver to UNSC ships rather than the copper-colour we'd see in un-painted modern tips - this is going off in-game in 343 titles, not the Halo 3 concept art which copy-pasted a modern 7.62mm round.

The second is the mention of 'energetic propellants' being a thing in various articles on this site, specifically the entries for the Scorpion and M20 SMG if my memory serves me right. I assume that an 'energetic propellant' is simply a more production-efficient compound that achieves much greater velocity for a smaller quantity of propellant.

It's criminal that we don't have more on the subject, especially considering that Halo is apparently military sci-fi.
But seeing as this is a subject I'm interested in, let me rationalise it further.

I'd like to start out by saying that modern bullets travel at hyper-sonic speeds, it's not that impressive.

I don't believe stock-standard UNSC weapons tech in the field is that advanced, and it isn't for good reason.

Can you imagine how expensive it'd be to equip every last Trooper and Marine with super-bullets or gauss rifles a-la Starcraft or whatever? The UNSC pre-Covenant war was already a massive military force with no real purpose beyond skirmishing with rebels who often didn't fight conventionally anyway. In fact, immediately following the Interplanetary Wars of the 22nd century, that caused the UEG to become economically destabilised.

Constantly re-equipping frontline and reserve units with highly advanced equipment would be a major problem - we already know the UNSC keeps various weapon systems and vehicles in service for hundreds of years, to wit in the case of the MA5 platform and Warthog. If the UNSC didn't need to issue its troops with more powerful weapons, it wouldn't. So no research was put into advanced infantry weapons, and any designs that did exist probably fell into obscurity because there was nothing they could do that a good ol' 7.62mm FMJ-AP round couldn't, and they would just end up being expensive, complicated and problematic to maintain across the entire UNSC armed forces. Remember, this isn't a military of a couple of hundred thousand, this is millions of soldiers across hundreds of worlds. The issue becomes obvious.

So with that rationalisation, when we see that many of the UNSC's firearms utilise antiquated and overly simple technology, we have to real reason to assume that they're anything more than it says. And after all, they work, don't they?
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