FIXES: So I have been testing different things for the achievements i'm missing and here is what i've learned about each one that's glitched:
A Lot Extra: About 20% of the objectives didn't unlock the first time i completed them, and the one's that didn't count seemed to be connected to the missions that I hadn't gotten gold on.So i went back and did all of those missions on normal with no skulls and and Got Palmers Pure Gold with no problems, i made sure to hit all bonus objectives for each mission to, not missing any . and noticed A Lot Extra's progress also went up to 90%, then i went back to Acension, which for some reason said i had 5 out of 4 objectives complete, beat it on Normal with no skulls, and made sure to get every single objective that playthrough, and it unlocked A Lot Extra.
Catching a Dream, this one I couldn't get to work, but thanks to 343's new patch it unlocked for me, thanks guys!
Space Healer: I have not had any luck on this one, it stopped progressing at 70%, but i've read that people noticed it will only go up with certain characters. I will go try to heal using each character and see if i can get it to work with one of them.
Surviving the Long War: I have not been able to unlock this one, but MoreInfoNeeded was able to tell me which missions did not stick, and i replayed them, and a few have updated to complete but a few didn't so they may need to be done again.
Term/Long Term Commitment: I have not unlocked this one either but i have read that if you persist it will eventually unlock. I will try it after i finally get the other ones.
Overview: I can't speak for Surviving the Long War, but YOU DO NOT NEED TO RESET YOUR PROGRESS TO UNLOCK A LOT EXTRA. Just play through your missions again on normal with NO SKULLS ON, complete all objectives (Bonus and Optional) if you can, although i'm not sure if this affects the outcome and get gold. Try the missions you do not have gold on first because they seem to be the ones that aren't sticking the objectives. Once you get Palmers Pure Gold, A Lot Extra should follow. Also, after you complete a mission don't skip to the next one or menu immediately, let it sit and then quit at the beginning of the next mission, this may help with the game registering you just compketed the mission.
This os all i've learned for now and many of these are theories, but doing what i did worked so id suggest to give it a try. I'll post again if i learn something new.