I had a very similar problem myself, which I just resolved through a work around yesterday, so I wanted to share my solution as I have been trying to resolve this issue for months. I still don't know what the actual problem is, but at least I found a way around it. I'm playing on Xbox One with a physical disc.
Game initially worked fine, but after receiving a dlc update that would not install, I decided to uninstall and re-install the game thinking this would fix the problem - it did not. After uninstalling the game from my Xbox One S, I was not able to install it again. The disc would spin up for a few seconds and then would simply say "Installation Stopped" and nothing I did would make it work. I tried removing all local content, all local saves, hard console reset (not factory), installing dlc/updates when prompted ahead of installation, choosing not to install updates before installation - nothing worked. I suspected the optical drive may be to blame, but all my other physical games installed and played without issue as always.
What baffled me the most is that I also have a Day 1 Xbox One, and when I put the disc into this other console (trying to determine if perhaps my game disc was the problem), it immediately installed, and played, without issue. I kept trying the disc in my Xbox One S periodically to no avail until yesterday.
My solution: If you have one, try installing from the disc directly to a connected HDD.
I don't know why I didn't think of this sooner, but I deleted all local content for Halo Wars 2 and then switched my default installation location to the external HDD I have connected to my Xbox One S (it's been connected through this entire situation) and it installed immediately, no problem. I have no idea what the problem actually is and why it refused to re-install to the internal drive, but at least I'm playing on my primary console again!